Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD)
PCOD Center in Hyderabad With Best Specialists
Prasad Infertility Solutions is one of the Best PCOD clinics in Kukatpally, Hyderabad. Most of the women in their Reproductive ages face PCOS problems. Here, Prasad Infertility Center is the best choice to women, where they can get diagnosed and get treatment from the best recognized specialists' team. Prasad Infertility Solutions, the Top Infertility Hospital in Hyderabad, have the best laboratory with advanced equipments to have diagnostic tests. Our specialists' team provides a better treatment plan for PCOD.
Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) is a disorder of chronically abnormal ovarian function and hyperandrogenism in women characterized by irregular or no periods, acne, obesity, and excess hair growth. The condition was named because of finding of enlarged ovaries containing small cysts (polycystic ovaries). PCOD has also been referred to as Stein-Leventhal Syndrome.
Differences between normal ovary and polycystic ovaries
According to the survey conducted by the Metropolis Healthcare Ltd in India, 17.60% women of age 15 to 30 years are having PCOD.
Causes of PCOD?
- ❖The periods may be light because of not ovulating.
- ❖ The periods may be extremely heavy because the lining of the uterus (Endometrium) continues to thicken when the monthly cycle doesn’t happen. Since the lining is shed during a menstrual period, there is a heavy or more to shed when it is menstruated.
1. Hormonal imbalance :
The hormonal imbalances behind PCOD put women at higher than normal risk for a wide range of well beyond the reproductive system.
(i) Irregular Menstrual cycles :The reason for irregular ovulation or no menstruation is a direct effect of hormone imbalance.
As the ovaries do not release an egg (ovum) that may be leading to infertility in women.
2. Insulin Resistance :
In insulin resistance, the body is not able to send enough glucose from the blood into the cells; this stimulates the pancreas to produce more insulin to help glucose levels even in the body. The extra insulin may have negative effects leading to the shutting down or closing of the ovaries and leading to higher than normal levels of male hormones (Androgens, Testosterone). Increased Male hormones interfere with normal ovulation by altering LH (Luteinizing Hormone) & Gonadotropin releasing hormone which helps in the development and release of an egg (Ovum).
3. Genetics :Family members of women who have PCOD are also at higher risk for developing the same metabolic abnormalities.
4. Obesity :Obesity and overweight status may contribute to insulin resistance which further leads to increase the male hormones.
Signs and Symptoms of PCOD?
- ❖Delay of normal menstruation (Primary amenorrhea).
- ❖Presence of fewer than normal menstrual periods (Oligomenorrhea).
- ❖Absence of menstruation for more than 3 months (Secondary amenorrhea).
- ❖Pimples (Acne).
- ❖Excess hair growth (Hirsutism) on the body includes upper lip, chin, around nipples and also on the lower abdomen.
- ❖Weight gain.
- ❖Dark patches of skin (Acanthosis nigricans) can form in body creases like those on the neck, in the groin, and under the breasts.
- The pathophysiology of PCOD encompasses inherent ovarian dysfunction that is strongly influenced by external factors, such as disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and Hyperinsulinemia. Exaggerated Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility results in hypersecretion of Luteinizing hormone (LH), which has effects both on ovarian androgen production.
- ❖Increased insulin in the body causes ovaries to produce more testosterone and alter the development of follicles needed for ovulation which leads to inhibition or delayed ovulation.
- ❖Adiponectin (a hormone that controls lipid and glucose levels in the blood) the higher concentration of this hormone is usually evident in women affected by PCOD.
- Genetic inheritance: CYP17, CYP19, FST and INSR are the genes that are suspected to cause PCOD. Research is conducting to identify the exact gene that leads to PCOD.
Diagnostic tests for PCOD?
- ❖Blood tests: Blood test is preferred to identify the hormonal imbalance such as Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Testosterone, Estrogens and Sex hormone binding globulin (SBGH).
- ❖USG Abdomen and Pelvis: A pelvic ultrasound (transvaginal and/or pelvic/abdominal) is used to evaluate enlarged ovaries. Ultrasounds are used for knowing whether internal structures do appear normal or not and also used to look for cysts in the ovaries. In PCOD, the ovaries maybe 1.5 to 3 times larger than normal and characteristically have more than 12 or more follicles per ovary measuring 2 to 9 mm in diameter. Often the cysts are lined up on the surface the ovaries.
- ❖Fasting blood sugar test is done to identify the increased glucose levels in blood.
- ❖Lipid profile test
- ❖Pelvic Examination: During a pelvic examination, your health care professional will check for lumps or changes in the shape of vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and rectum. The health care professional also will use a speculum to open the vagina to look at your and take samples for a Pap test.
Complications of PCOD
PCOD negatively impacts fertility because women with this condition do not ovulate or release an egg, each month due to overproduction of estrogen as well as testosterone precursors by the ovaries. Due to the irregular ovulation, the periods may be irregular and also increased levels of testosterone causes the risk to oocyte quality and also results in insulin resistance and risks like obesity, Type 2 Diabetes.
b. Insulin resistance & Hyperandrogenism:
Due to the insulin resistance pancreas gets stimulated and produces more insulin to uptake the glucose from the blood into the cells. In this process, the extra insulin hormone activates the ovarian theca cells and increases the biosynthesis of ovarian androgens (Testosterone). This testosterone causes the arrest of the ovarian follicle development and leads to symptoms like acne; abnormal hair growth on the upper lip, chin, cheeks, around the nipples and also on the lower abdomen.
c. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:
During the induction of insulin resistance (such as occurs with a high-calorie diet, irregular medication, or physical inactivity), increased glucagon levels and increased Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) levels accompany glucose intolerance. Postprandial blood glucose levels may first increase due to the progress of abnormal glucose tolerance. Suppression of Hepatic gluconeogenesis fails as hyperglycemia develops fast.
d. Cardiovascular disease:
Having PCOD increases a woman’s chances of getting heart-related complications. This is due to the higher levels of insulin and high levels of triglycerides that have been associated with PCOS are known to increase one’s risk for high cholesterol, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis. These conditions can increase your risk for Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, Heart attack and Stroke.
Women with PCOD produce too much insulin, or the insulin they produce does not work as it should. The inability of insulin to function normally is one reason why women with PCOD tend to gain weight or have a hard time losing weight. For others, PCOD develops later on, following substantial weight gain. What is clear is that women affected by obesity have a greater risk for PCOD and women with PCOD have a greater risk of obesity.
f. Endometrial Cancer:
Women with PCOD and other factors that increase estrogen levels (including obesity, diabetes) are more likely to develop endometrial cancer, though rare indeed is a serious problem. Progesterone is the hormone that is responsible for shedding the process of the lining of the uterus or endometrium every month. Due to insufficient progesterone levels, many women with PCOS may not have monthly menstruation. Scarcity of Progesterone and no monthly periods causes Endometrial Hyperplasia and then leads to Endometrial cancer when PCOS is left without treatment.
Treatment of PCOD
We, Prasad Infertility Solutions, one of the Best Infertility Center in Hyderabad, provide the patient with a better treatment plan for PCOD that includes pharmacological treatment (by medication) and non-pharmacological medication (Lifestyle modifications, Diet chart, Regular exercise). In the case of skin and obesity problems, we provide the patient with dermatology consultation and dietician consultation.